I understand clearly now. Perfect explanation and the drawing helps - thank you!. I may tackle making a governor some day, a first generation Judson... but only one... not multiples for my larger box bed steam engine. JakeBest I can do Jake. Here is a poor pic of a sectioned Judson valve. The Valve prongs simply engage with the bottom seat to keep axial valve alignment. The " cutout" portions form the actual valve opening.
The idea behind it is this. Steam enters pressurizing the bottom chamber. It then enters the central hole through the center of the valve via the bottom pressurized chamber. It then pressurizes the top chamber with approximately the same steam pressure as the bottom chamber. This results in equilibrium of pressures on both end of the valve.
This was an early form of balancing the valve within the governor body stabilizing valve function.