There was a period where it was fairly common for "adapted" lathes to have a small automotive 4-speed gearbox instead of a geared headstock. I seem to recall reading something about a glut of war surplus automotive parts contributing to this. On some of those machines, you can put them into reverse!
There is no point - I posted it up because the "garage special" is somewhat rare and I thought the members here would find it interesting. And it's possible there is a South Bend headstock buried in there, somewhere.
Well it's definitely a South Bend built lathe, sold by Sears as a "Garage Special" and has the original headstock. This 10-inch lathe was reintroduced in the early 1920's along with the 9 and 11-inch lathes. The "J" serial numbers you see are these first improved 2'nd gen lathes. This 10-inch lathe was based on the catalog number 19 "Special 10":
and were first recorded with "S" serial numbers, could this be for "Sears"?
This model was an improved 1'st generation catalog number 26, 10-inch lathe that Sears sold as the "Expert".
The model 26 did not have a reverse shifter, the 2'nd generation model 19 did and had the 3/4 through hole spindle.
The 1'st generation 9-inch, model 24 was improved and became the 2'nd gen model 25.
The "J" lathes had power feeds: Model 25, 9-inch and model 27, 11-inch.
In an old SBL parts document the term "Junior" is used to describe these lathes, this is the earliest mention I've found of the later Junior series lower cost lathes.
The "S" lathes did not have power feeds: Improved model 26(model 19).
At this time point they also leased/purchased the Flather gearbox patent which they improved to what we know today as the South Bend/Norton style box. Replacing their 2-speed box through all size lathes by 1922 from the large lathes first, down to the 9-inch and omitting the 10-inch.
I'm not sure if I've ever seen a "garage special" with a gearbox.
Clearly the transmission drive has been added, but that was a common improvement in that time period.