looks like a taper pin. Use as large a punch as you can fit in the small end and give it a good hit. The misshapen hole on the small side looks like it's been re-drilled before and the larger side has been mushroomed over.
I just noticed your thread.
Looks like your doing a great job getting your lathe cleaned up. I also have a 12x30 18 speed that's a little older than yours (1938). I have mine pretty much completely disassembled and everything cleaned and painted except the main casting and headstock. I have been documenting my project on the other machinist forum if your interested.
I will start to monitor your progress and give you any help if I can. Here is the link below.
Hendey 12x30 inspection, disassembly and cleaning -
The Home Shop Machinist & Machinist's Workshop Magazine's BBS
I need file the big burrs off of the ways, then stone them, but I have no clue what stone to use, or how much they cost. I've never done it before
A fine sharpening stone like you would use on a pocket-knife is a good start. You can also get (or make) "precision" stones that are the same rock, but ground flat, but IMO they would be wasted on a clean-up job like this, and are better suited to stuff like tool and die work or very precise way refitting.
That said, IMO 90% of the precision of stoning things is in the way you do it, which isn't very complicated. I was taught to work in figure-8's as much as possible, as it will hit a burr from every side, but on narrow surfaces like your lathe ways, you have to work within the space you have. Big thing is just watch what you are stoning as in a couple swipes you will see bright shiny spots develop on edges and burrs. Keep your stone level with the work and just keep going until you see the edges of the shiny spots start to blend into the surrounding area. If you're only seeing shiney lines on the edges of the surface and not the body of the surface, you're probably pushing it to one side as you go. So long as you only get shiny spots and don't stone it down until EVERYTHING is shiny, then your stoning won't change a part dimensionally. Don't bear down on the stone much, just keep it moving and let it kinda self-level against the work.
It also really really helps to clean parts before you stone them so you don't load up the stone with grime rust and paint. Use mineral spirits or a light oil as a cutting fluid really helps too.
Keep an eye on the surface of your stone and as soon as it starts "loading up" with grit and grime, wash it in mineral spirits or gojo hand cleaner with a plastic brush. In general it should clean up quickly and easily. If you see little shiney spots on the stone, that's metal that's building up on the surface. You can run it over another stone, or a piece of sand paper on a flat surface, or use a pick to carefully flick out the metal. Those spots can scratch your surface if they build up too much. The cleaner and more evenly you stone, the less of that you will see.
Leave the shim in there! If you are lucky it will be all you need, and if so go buy some Powerball tickets!
Will do! I believe the tailstock has a dead center installed. It doesn't turn or anything. How would I tell the difference
See if star knob in center of carriage hand wheel is actually loose. This is the "on-off knob" for the longitudinal power feed -
Is this something I need to take apart to get to? There is a nut holding the handwheel on, but it's tight. Reading the hendey operating manual, and the parts manual, I can't find the star knob in the center of the handwheel you're referring to. All levers are disengaged for cross feed and longitudinal feed. Whenever I pull up on he longitudinal feed handle, I can't turn the wheel. Here's a picture of my apron
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